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Previous Extinction 4 of 29 Next Extinction
Category Known By Museum Specimens


Liverpool Pigeon
(Caloenas maculata)
[Extinct]


1 Liverpool Pigeon
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2 Liverpool Pigeon
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3 Liverpool Pigeon
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4 Liverpool Pigeon
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5 Liverpool Pigeon
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6 Liverpool Pigeon
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All images shown here are in the public domain because its copyright has expired.
(Unless otherwise stated)

Taxonomy & Status

Common Names

Liverpool Pigeon
Spotted Green Pigeon

Conservation status

Extinct - last collected in 1851

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Caloenas
Species: C. maculata

Binomial name

Caloenas maculatas

Synonyms

Columba maculata
columba picazuro

    
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Liverpool Pigeon

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Citation: Godino, F.M.J. (). Liverpool Pigeon extinct-website.com & co.uk .Downloaded on .
Disclaimer:To make use of this information shown on this page, please check the Conditions of use.
Feedback:Questions, suggestions or do you see any error? Contact us.
Brief Summary

The Liverpool Pigeon or Spotted Green Pigeon (Caloenas maculata) is a presumed extinct pigeon species from an unknown provenance.

Description

The Liverpool Pigeon was first mentioned in the work A General Synopsis of Birds (1783) by John Latham and scientifically named by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789. It reached a size of 32 centimetres. The wing length was 175 mm, the tail length was 126 mm, the culmen was 20 mm and the tarsus was measured with 33 mm. The plumage was deep bottle green. The neck was characterized by elongated feathers. The wing and back feathers were spangled cream coloured. The terminal band of the tail was cream coloured too. Legs and feet were reddish. On the base of the beak was a knob. The Liverpool Pigeon had short rounded wings. On basis of the elongated neck feathers John Latham assumed a relationship with the Nicobar Pigeon and Lord Rothschild regarded it as just an aberrant specimen of the Nicobar Pigeon. It was probably Rothschild's influence that the Liverpool Pigeon was often overlooked by subsequent authors. Notwithstanding the Liverpool Pigeon was very different to the Nicobar Pigeon.

Status

The provenance and the reasons for its extinction remained unknown. Ornithologist David Gibbs hypothesized that this bird might have collected on a Pacific island because stories told by Tahitian islanders in 1928 about a mysterious green and white spotted bird called titi might well have been about this pigeon. However, paleontologist David Steadman revised this hypothesis and stated that the name titi is used for several bird species in French Polynesia in particular for the procellariids. In 1851, a juvenile specimen came into the museum collection of the Earl of Derby in Knowsley Hall which is now on display in the World Museum Liverpool. A second specimen which was collected between 1783 and 1823 is lost. BirdLife International added the Liverpool Pigeon to the list of extinct bird species in 2008.

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Museum specimens records

National Museums And Galleries Merseyside, Liverpool Museum - William Brown Street, Liverpool, England, United Kingdom.

The last specimen of the Liverpool pigeon.
Reproduced by kind permission of Dr. Clemency Fisher, Curator of Vertebrate Zoology.
© National Museums Liverpool.

© Photos taken by 'Francisco Godino, Extinct-website.com & Extinct-website.co.uk'

A big thank you to Clemency Fisher, PhD (Curator of Vertebrates) and Tony Parker (Zoology Curator and Database Manager) of National Museums And Galleries Merseyside, Liverpool Museum for allowing me to visit and browse their collection.

Columba maculata (Gmelin)
Syst. Nat. 1, 1789, p. 780, n. 52.
= PCaloenas maculata (Gmelin)

1. Holotype: D.3538. Ex. General Davies Collection.
T.L. 319mm, Wing. 175mm, Tail. 126mm, Tarsus. 33mm, Bill. 20mm.

There can be no reasonable doubt but that this specimen is the type of the spotted Green Pigeon of Latham (Gen. Syn. 2 (2), 1783, p. 642, n. 37; Gen. Hist. 8 1822, p. 23, pl. 117). As noted by Forbes (Bull. Liverpool Mus. 1, 1898, p.83, pl.4) and confirmed by R. Wagstaffe, it agrees essentially with Latham's description (1783) and with the plate in Latham (18220. In the 13th Lord Derby's copy of the last - named work, still extant at Knowsley Hall, against Latham's statement "In the collection of Major Davies" there is an annotation "now in my collection". Latham also refers to another specimen "he met with" in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks and to a drawing at Sir Ashton Lever's, but the status of these two is uncertain, and they are presumed to have been lost.

The locality of the collection of the present specimen is uncertain. In Peters (3, 1937, p.139) Columba maculata (Gmelin) is regarded as of uncertain status, and the opinion of Rothschild and Harbert (Nov. Zool. 8, 1901, p.133) is quoted that it may be an aberrant of C. nicobarica (L). However, there is no doubt that it represents a perfectly recognisable form, presemably now extinct.

Reference: Type Specimens of Birds in the Merseyside County Museums (Paperback) by Reginald Wagstaffe (Author)

Images Gallery
All images shown here are in the public domain because its copyright has expired.
(Unless otherwise stated)

Spotted Green Pigeon from A general history of birds (1821-1824) by John Latham (1740–1837).

Lithograph by J. Smit from the Bulletin of the Liverpool Museum Volume 1, No.3&4, 1898.

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* A general synopsis of birds, Volume II, Part II.
By John Latham.
Published in 1783. PDF abstract text

* General zoology or, Systematic natural history.
Vol. XI. Part I. Aves.
Commenced by the late George Shaw.
By J.F. Stephens.
Published in 1819. PDF abstract text

* A general history of birds, Volume VIII.
By John Latham.
Published in 1823. PDF abstract text

* On the Type of the Spotted Green Pigeon, of Latham, in the Derby Museum.
Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums.
Volume 1, No.3&4, 1898. PDF fulltext

* 'Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums' Vol. i. Nos. 3 and 4.
THE IBIS, QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY.
VOL. V. Seventh Series 1899. PDF fulltext

* Catalogue of the Charadriomorphic Birds (Charadriformes) : Auks (Alcidfie), Gulls (Laridae),
and Skuas (Stercorariidae) — Lari; Lark=plovers (Thinocoridae), Stone=curlews (CEdicnemidse),
Jaganas (Jacanidae), Sheathbills (Chionidae), Crab = plovers (Dromadidae), Coursers (Cursoriidae),
Plovers and Snipes (Charadriidae)— Limicolae; Pigeons (Columbae), and Sandgrouse (Pterocles), in the Derby Museum.
Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums.
Volume II, No.1, 1899. PDF abstract text

* Catalogue of the Charadriomorphic Birds (Charadriformes) : Auks (Alcidfie), Gulls (Laridae),
and Skuas (Stercorariidae) — Lari; Lark=plovers (Thinocoridae), Stone=curlews (CEdicnemidse),
Jaganas (Jacanidae), Sheathbills (Chionidae), Crab = plovers (Dromadidae), Coursers (Cursoriidae),
Plovers and Snipes (Charadriidae)— Limicolae; Pigeons (Columbae), and Sandgrouse (Pterocles), in the Derby Museum.
Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums.
Volume II, No.1, 1899. PDF fulltext

References

*BirdLife International 2008. Caloenas maculata. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 February 2010
* Gibbs, David; Eustace Barnes, and John Cox (2001). Pigeons and Doves. A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. Robertsbridge, UK: Pica Press. ISBN 1873403607
* Fuller, Errol (2000). Extinct Birds. revised ed. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-8160-1833-2.
* Steadman, David William (2001). "Pigeons and Doves: A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World". Auk 108:1117-1118.

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